Romania - Direct Uses




individual space heating



District heating



Greenhouse heating



fish farming



Agricultural drying



Industrial process



bathing and swimming



geothermal heat pumps





Total thermal installed capacity in MWt


Direct use in TJ/year


Direct use in GWh/year


Capacity factor



Country Update: Due to economic difficulties, only a few new geothermal projects were completed during the last five years. New projects are a district heating system using open loop heat pumps, and one geothermal project for bathing and swimming. Also, some existing district systems were expanded. Some greenhouses have been closed during this period. The main direct uses of geothermal heat in the country are for district heating and individual space heating, and health and recreational bathing. In a few places geothermal energy is also used for greenhouse heating (about 10 ha), fish farming (a few farms), industrial processing, and drying. In areas where the available wellhead temperature is low, the geothermal water is only used for health and recreational bathing (i.e. Felix spa), or for fish farming, depending upon the chemical composition of the fluid. Higher temperatures and in larger communities, geothermal water is first used for district heating, some industrial processes, and then part of the depleted water used for bathing and/or fish farming, the rest being reinjected. The market for ground-source heat pumps began in the late 1990s, and is now developing quite well. There are over 2,000 large borehole heat exchangers ranging from 70 to 125 m in depth. Many of these applications are open loop systems requiring large water flows that are not always available. Thus, in the last few years the larger applications are using closed loop systems that are more common for commercial buildings. Since there is no central authority keeping track of geothermal heat pump installations, based on limited information, the estimated installed capacity is about 40 MWt and the annual energy use is 140 GWh (480 TJ/yr). (Bendea, et al., 2015).

Taken from: John W. Lund and Tonya L. Boyd
Published in Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2015 Worldwide Review

Total thermal installed capacity in MWt:153.24
Direct use in TJ/year1,265.43
Direct use in GWh/year351.5
Capacity factor0.26

The main geothermal resources in the country are found in porous and permeable sandstones and siltstones (such as in the western plains), or in the fractured carbonate formations (such as at Oradea and Bors in the western part of the country).

The total capacity of the existing wells is about 480 MWt; however, only about 148 MWt from 80 wells are currently used. 35 of these wells are used for balneology and producing water at temperatures from 40 to 115oC. During the last five years seven geothermal wells have been drilled in the country with National financing, with some to depths of 1,500 to 3,000 m producing up to 90oC water. 
There are two main companies in Romania currently exploiting geothermal resources: Transgex S.A. and Foradex S.A., have been given long term concession for practically all known geothermal reservoirs. Transgex, the most active company, is looking at developing district heating projects in a number of communities. The University of Oradea has established a Geothermal Research Center which provides geothermal training and research.

The current direct utilization in the country includes:

13.28 MWt and 164.83 TJ/yr for individual space heating;
58.95 MWt and 531.72 TJ/yr for district heating;
4.18 MWt and 20.78 TJ/yr for greenhouses (8 locations);
4.50 MWt and 9.70 TJ/yr for fish farming (one location);
1.40 MWt and 12.70 TJ/yr for agricultural drying;
0.75 MWt and 6.84 TJ/yr for industrial process heat (4 locations);
64.68 MWt and 489.16 TJ/yr for bathing and swimming;
and an estimated 5.5 MWt and 29.70 TJ/yr for geothermal heat pumps,
giving a total of 153.24 MWt and 1,265.43 TJ/yr.  

Taken from the paper by John W. Lund, Derek H. Freeston, and Tonya L. Boyd: "Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2010 Worldwide Review"; published in Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, Indonesia, 25-29 April 2010