Nepal - Direct Uses




bathing and swimming





Total thermal installed capacity in MWt


Direct use in TJ/year


Direct use in GWh/year


Capacity factor



Country Update: Geothermal energy is used only for bathing and swimming at the numerous hot springs throughout the country. The most popular hot spring in the country is Singa Tatopani located about 390 km west of Kathmandu. The pool can hold up to 100 people at a time, and more than 60,000 people from various parts of the country visit the spring every year mainly to cure for rheumatic and gastric diseases; but it is also used from recreational purposes. Another pool is in the Kodari geothermal area, which attracts people from various remote areas as well. During the winter season, bathing in the pond takes place 18 hours a day, with alternating shifts of three hours for male and female. Due to its popularity, the local community has improved the supporting infrastructure for meals and lodging. Improvements have been made at numerous other hot springs to make them a tourist destination. However, geothermal energy has remained a neglected area of renewable energy source, mainly due to lack of trained people and knowledge of the potential by the national and local governments. Lack of good road access and availability of investment has also been problems.

However, many of these problems are being addressed which will encourage future direct-use developments. In summary, there are 25 hot springs that have been identified in the country where bathing, swimming and balneology takes place. These uses have an installed capacity of 3.316 MWt and annual energy use of 81.112 TJ/yr (Ranjit, 2015).

Taken from: John W. Lund and Tonya L. Boyd
Published in Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2015 Worldwide Review

Total thermal installed capacity in MWt:2.7
Direct use in TJ/year73.7
Direct use in GWh/year20.5
Capacity factor0.86

Geothermal development has been taking place on a very small scale with the increased participation of local government and the limited financial resources. Increased popularization of geothermal springs has led to more attraction of visitors. The local people have been able to boost their business and as a result, taken the initiative to building road infrastructure with the assistance of local government bodies.

The main use has been for bathing and swimming at 25 locations. There is also some small use for boiling eggs in restaurants and for direct drinking of the water to cure gastroenteritis disease; however, these two uses are not quantified and are included in the bathing and swimming numbers: 2.717 MWt and 73.743 TJ/yr. 

Taken from the paper by John W. Lund, Derek H. Freeston, and Tonya L. Boyd: "Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2010 Worldwide Review"; published in Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, Indonesia, 25-29 April 2010