Turkey - Direct Uses




individual space heating



District heating



Greenhouse heating



Agricultural drying



bathing and swimming



 geothermal heat pumps





Total thermal installed capacity in MWt


Direct use in TJ/year


Direct use in GWh/year


Capacity factor



Country Update: Studies in the country have identified more than 225 geothermal field which can be useful at the economic scale, and about 2,000 hot and mineral water resources (springs and wells) which have temperatures ranging from 20 to 287°C have also been documented. Up to now, nearly 1,200 geothermal exploratory, production and reinjection wells have been drilled in Turkey. At present there are 16 geothermal district heating systems in operation some using water as low as 40 to 45oC, without the use of heat pumps. These systems serve 77,453 residences. Greenhouse applications have reached three million m2 due to satisfaction with the various operations; however, development has slowed down in the last one to two years. There are six major greenhouse areas in the country, mostly in the west. Tomatoes are mostly grown in these greenhouses with the major markets of Russia (60%), Europe 20%, around 10% elsewhere internationally, and 10% sold domestically. 16 million local and 10,000 foreign visitors are benefiting from the balneological uses of geothermal water in Turkey, with investments growing in recent years. Geothermal heat pump installations have grown, with large installations in the Metro Meydan M1 Shopping Center/Istanbul; the Terme Maris Facility in Dalaman; The Titanic Hotel in Antalya; Antalya Terra city, and the Sabiha Gokcen Airport in Istanbul. (Mertoglu, et al., 2015).

Taken from: John W. Lund and Tonya L. Boyd
Published in Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2015 Worldwide Review

Total thermal installed capacity in MWt:2,084
Direct use in TJ/year36,885.9
Direct use in GWh/year10,246.9
Capacity factor0.56

Turkey has extensive geothermal resources, that have been utilized for heating of residences, district heating, greenhouse heating and for spas.

There are a total of 260 spas in the country using geothermal water for balneological purposes. There is also a liguid carbon dioxide and dry ice production factory integrated with a power plant at Kizildere.
Greenhouse heating has increased substantially in the last three years, with installations in six major areas covering 230 ha.
Tourism is also an important industry with over 12 million local and 10,000 foreign visitors benefiting from the balneological aspects of hot springs and spas.

Geothermal heat pump applications include the Metro Meydan M1 Shopping Center in Istanbul and the Terme Maris Facility in Dalaman. The geothermal heating is equivalent to supplying energy to 201,000 residences.

The various applications are:

219 MWt and 2,417 TJ/yr for individual space heating;
792 MWt and 7,386.4 TJ/yr for district heating;
483 MWt and 9,138 TJ/yr for greenhouse heating;
552 MWt and 17,408 TJ/yr for bathing and swimming;
38 MWt and 536.5 TJ/yr for geothermal heat pumps.

The total for the country is 2,084 MWt and 36,885.9 TJ/yr.  

Taken from the paper by John W. Lund, Derek H. Freeston, and Tonya L. Boyd: "Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2010 Worldwide Review"; published in Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, Indonesia, 25-29 April 2010