Tunisia - Direct Uses

Based on data from WGC2010

 

MWt

TJ/year

Greenhouse heating

42.5

335

bathing and swimming

0.9

23

Other uses (animal husbandry)

0.4

6

 

 

Total thermal installed capacity in MWt

43.80

Direct use in TJ/year

364.00

Direct use in GWh/year

101.12

Capacity factor

0.26

 

Country Update: No country update paper was submitted for Tunisia; however, a paper of geothermal development in the country was available. The use of geothermal energy in the country is limited to direct-applications because of the low enthalpy resources, which are located mainly in the southern part of the country. For thousands of years, geothermal water has been used in bathing, and many of the geothermal manifestations in the country have the name of Hammam or bath, which reflects the main use of geothermal water over the centuries. Now, most of the resources are utilized for irrigation or oases and heating of greenhouses. Today the cultivated area of greenhouse is 244 ha. Based on data from WGC2010, the total for greenhouses was 42.5 MWt and 335 TJ/yr, for bathing and swimming 0.9 MWt and 23 TJ/yr, and for others (mainly animal husbandry) was 0.4 MWt and 6 TJ/yr, for a country total of 43.8 MWt and 364 TJ/yr (Ben Mohamed, 2015).


Taken from: John W. Lund and Tonya L. Boyd
Published in Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2015 Worldwide Review


Total thermal installed capacity in MWt:43.8
Direct use in TJ/year364
Direct use in GWh/year101.1
Capacity factor0.26

The use of geothermal energy in the country is limited to direct application because of the low enthalpy resources, which are located mainly in the southern part of the country. For thousands of years, geothermal water has been used in bathing and many of the geothermal manifestations in the country have the name of "Hammam" or bath, which reflects the main use of geothermal water over the centuries.

Now, most of the resources are utilized for irrigation of oases and heating greenhouses. The government’s policy in the beginning of the 1980s was oriented towards the development of the oasis section which is supplied with geothermal water for irrigation. About 31,500 ha of oases are irrigated after cooling the water in atmospheric cooling towers. In 1986, the government started using geothermal energy for greenhouse farming, which is considered a promising and economic development. The results are that now there are 194 ha of greenhouses (up from 111 ha in 2005), and by the end of 2016 this is planned to be increased to 315 ha.

The geothermal use in the Kebili area is 70.8% for oasis, 27.0% for greenhouses, 1.0% for Hammams, 0.8% for tourism and pools, and 0.3% for animal husbandry and washing. The greenhouses raise tomatoes (52%), cucumbers and snake melons (21%), melons (18%), watermelons (3%), and others (6%) for a total production of 22,000 tonnes in 2009 for the Kebili region (Ben Mohamed, 2010).

No data were provided on geothermal use, thus one of the authors (Lund), based on data from WGC2005 (Lund et al., 2005), estimated the following:

an increase to 42.5 MWt and 335 TJ/yr for greenhouse heating; with the other uses remaining constant at:
0.9 MWt and 23 TJ/yr for bathing and swimming;
0.4 MWt and 6 TJ/yr for others (mainly animal husbandry);

for a total of 43.8 MWt and 364 TJ/yr.  

Taken from the paper by John W. Lund, Derek H. Freeston, and Tonya L. Boyd: "Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2010 Worldwide Review"; published in Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, Indonesia, 25-29 April 2010