Solvenia - Direct Uses




individual space heating



District heating



Air conditioning



Greenhouse heating



Other uses (heating of sanitary hot water)



Snow melting



bathing and swimming



Industrial installed capacity



 geothermal heat pumps





Total thermal installed capacity in MWt


Direct use in TJ/year


Direct use in GWh/year


Capacity factor



Country Update: In the country, geothermal energy is estimated to currently supply direct heat uses and geothermal (ground-source) heat pumps (GSHP). Space heating is implemented in 19 locations, predominately at thermal spas and resorts using heat exchangers (e.g. Moravske, Toplice, Banovci, and Terme Lendava), or geothermal heat pumps (e.g. Cerkno, Hotel Diana in Murska Sobota). During the last five years space heating with geothermal energy was introduced at several localities: Radenci, Mala Nedelja, Ptuj, Maribor, Bled and at Dobova (Paradiso). The heating of domestic (sanitary) hot water is included at nine locations. There are 18 thermal spas and health resorts, and an additional nine recreation centers (four of which are part of a hotel), where swimming pools with a surface area of about 45,500 m2 and volume of 61,200 m3 are heated by geothermal water directly or indirectly through heat exchangers or geothermal heat pumps. There are three geothermal district heating systems in the country. In Murska Sobota the residential area (300 flats with 16,000 m2) and a new theater are heated geothermally. In Lendava a large number of public buildings (mainly schools) and blocks of flats are heated under a private authority. District heating on a small scale is used in the village Benedikt where a few public buildings (50,000 m2) have been heated since 2010. Sidewalk snow melting has recently been installed in Lendava. Air conditioning (cooling) of hotel spaces using geothermal is reported at three locations. A total of 13.5 ha of greenhouses at four locations are heated with geothermal energy. Tomatoes, orchids, exotic fruit are grown in these houses. The industrial use at Vrhnika by the Leather Industry Co. went into bankruptcy and is no longer in operation. (Rajver, et al., 2015).

Taken from: John W. Lund and Tonya L. Boyd
Published in Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2015 Worldwide Review

Total thermal installed capacity in MWt:104.17
Direct use in TJ/year1,136.39
Direct use in GWh/year315.7
Capacity factor0.35

Geothermal direct-use is implemented at 28 locations in the country and discontinued at three locations due to economics. This includes four new sites that have come on line and which are located in the northeaster part of the country.

There are 20 thermal spas and health resorts, and five recreation centers (four of which are part of a hotel complex). Space heating is implemented at 13 locations, mainly at thermal spas, with air conditioning (cooling) at one location.

There are two district heating projects, at Murska Sobota for about 300 dwellings and in Lendava where several building are heated in the downtown area. In Lendava there is also snow melting. There are a number of greenhouse locations, one growing flowers for the domestic market of 4.5 ha, one of 1 ha growing tomatoes and one of 1.4 ha growing orchids. The leather factor at Vrhnika is closed.

A total of about 3,440 heat pump units are installed in the country, about half open loop systems (47%) extracting 190 TJ/yr from shallow ground water, and the others are closed loop, mostly horizontal (49%)(159 TJ/yr), with 4% being vertical closed loop installations (30 TJ/yr). About 13 TJ/yr of heat is rejected to the ground in the cooling mode, presumably by vertical systems. Geothermal heat pumps are the largest direct-use in the country; however one of the obstacles to their use is the higher tariff imposed for electricity for these units.

The various uses include:

22.4 MWt and 306.23 TJ/yr for individual space heating;
3.29 MWt and 44 TJ/yr for district heating;
0.13 MWt and 2 TJ/yr for air conditioning (cooling);
13.6 MWt and 94.6 TJ/yr for greenhouse heating;
25.04 MWt; 310.56 TJ/yr for bathing and swimming;
49.71 MWt and 379 TJ/yr for geothermal heat pumps.

The total for the country is 104.17 MWt and 1,136.39 TJ/yr  

Taken from the paper by John W. Lund, Derek H. Freeston, and Tonya L. Boyd: "Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2010 Worldwide Review"; published in Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, Indonesia, 25-29 April 2010