Serbia - Direct Uses




district heating



Greenhouse heating



fish farming



Agricultural drying



bathing and swimming



 geothermal heat pumps



Animal farming





Total thermal installed capacity in MWt


Direct use in TJ/year


Direct use in GWh/year


Capacity factor



Country Update: The commonest use of geothermal energy in the country is the traditional ones: balneology and recreation. Today, there are 59 spas in Serbia that use thermal water for balneology, sport and recreation. Geothermal energy is also used for space heating as well as for agriculture and industrial processes, but only on a limited scale. In Vranjsak Spa thermal waters with temperature of 96°C have been used for 40 years for heating the rehabilitation center through a heat exchanger, and then for heating greenhouses where flowers are grown, downstream of the spa. A large hotel and rehabilitation center with a swimming pool is heated with thermal water in Kursumlijska Spa. In Niska Spa, heat pumps with a capacity of 6 MWt use 25oC water for heating the rehabilitation center.

Thermal waters are used at the Sijarinska Spa for heating the hotel and recreation center. At the Ribarsak Spa thermal water at 44°C are passed through a heat exchanger from a well heating the rehabilitation center, and a second well at 48oC is used for balneotherapy. Thermal water at Lukovska Spa is used for heating the hotel and for balneotherapy. A project has been completed for geothermal direct use at Debrc for drying wheat and other cereals, and for space heating. Many other geothermal projects are either in the planning stages or under construction. In 1990, due to the economic and political situation in the country the development of geothermal projects has been curtailed with many of them closed. However, after the year 2000, there has been renewed interest in direct-use geothermal projects in the country. (Oudech and Djokic, 2015).

Taken from: John W. Lund and Tonya L. Boyd
Published in Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2015 Worldwide Review

Total thermal installed capacity in MWt:100.8
Direct use in TJ/year1,410
Direct use in GWh/year391.7
Capacity factor0.44

The most common use of geothermal energy in the country is for balneology and recreation. Archeological evidence indicates similar uses by the Romans in the locations of the present spas such as Vranjuska, Niska, Vrnjacka and Gamzigradska.

Today there are 59 thermal water spas in the country used for balneology, sports and recreation and as tourist centers. Thermal waters are also bottled by nine mineral water bottling companies. Space heating and electric power generation from geothermal energy is in the exploration stages. There are presently 25 wells in use within the Pannonian Basin, and with uses for heating greenhouses (4 wells), heating pig farms (3 wells), industrial process such as in leather and textile factories (2 wells), space heating (3 wells) and 13 wells for various uses in spas and for sport and recreation facilities. Outside the basin, geothermal water is used for space heating, greenhouse heating (raising flowers), a poultry farm, a textile workshop, a spa rehabilitation center and a hotel. Three other spas and rehabilitation centers also use geothermal heat, including heat pumps of 6 MWt, which uses water at 25oC, and in the carpet industry. 
The various applications include:

20.9 MWt and 356 TJ/yr for space eating;
18.5 MWt and 128 TJ/yr for greenhouse heating;
6.4 MWt and 128 TJ/yr for fish and animal farming;
0.7 MWt and 10 TJ/yr for agricultural drying;
4.6 MWt and 58 TJ/yr for industrial process heating;
39.8 MWt and 647 TJ/yr for bathing and swimming;
9.9 MWt and 83 TJ/yr for geothermal heat pumps.

The total for the country is 100.8 MWt and 1,410 TJ/yr. 

Taken from the paper by John W. Lund, Derek H. Freeston, and Tonya L. Boyd: "Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2010 Worldwide Review"; published in Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, Indonesia, 25-29 April 2010