Poland - Direct Uses




individual space heating



District heating



Industrial process heat



Snow melting



bathing and swimming



 geothermal heat pumps





Total thermal installed capacity in MWt


Direct use in TJ/year


Direct use in GWh/year


Capacity factor



Country Update: During 2010-2014 geothermal energy was used in several localities mainly for heating, bathing and swimming and the use of geothermal heat pumps. Over the past five year the total installed geothermal capacity and heat sales have increased, resulting mainly from additional heat sales in the Podhale region, relaunch of a plant in Stargard Szczecinski, opening of a new heating plant in Poddebice and additional geothermal heat pump installations. Six geothermal district heating plants are operational: in the Podhale region (since 1994), in Pyrzyce (since 1996), in Mszczonow (since 1999), in Uniejow (since 2001), in Stargard Szczecinski (since 2012, re-opened after closure in 2008), and in Poddebice (since 2013). Geothermal bathing and swimming facilities are available at eleven health resorts. Many of them have a long history of use while three recent ones just received formal health resort status. The geothermal heat pump sector has been characterized by a very moderate growth for many years, but has increased in recent years. The number of geothermal heat pumps (water/water, water/brine, horizontal and vertical closed loop) is estimated at least at 35,000 units. The largest installation in the country is at Szczecin municipality with an installed capacity of 2.6 MWt consisting of 240 vertical bore holes each at 52 m depth. (Kepinska, 2015).

Taken from: John W. Lund and Tonya L. Boyd
Published in Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2015 Worldwide Review

Total thermal installed capacity in MWt:281.1
Direct use in TJ/year1,501.1
Direct use in GWh/year417
Capacity factor0.17

Poland is characterized by low-enthalpy geothermal resources found mostly in the Mesozoic sedimentary formations. For many centuries warm springs have been used for balneotherapy in several spas. At present five geothermal heating plants are in operation, the largest in the Podhale region in southern Poland with an installed capcity of 41 MW and producing 267 TJ/yr (peak). Seven new bathing centers opened in the past five years.

Other types of geothermal use include greenhouse heating, wood drying, fish farming (these three are at the Podhale Geothermal Laboratory as R&D projects), and salt extraction from geothermal water.

Geothermal heat pumps installations have increased by at least 50% over the past five years with three large units in two major heating plants (water-source units), and over 11,000 units in individual buildings (ground-coupled units, both vertical and horizontal).

The various uses include:

district heating of 68.0 MWt and 393 TJ/yr;
greenhouse heating 0.5 MWt and 2.0 TJ/yr;
fish farming 0.5 MWt and 2.0 TJ/yr;
bathing and swimming 8.67 MWt and 55.2 TJ/yr;
geothermal heat pumps at 203.10 MWt and 1,044.5 TJ/yr;
others (salt extraction and playground heating) 0.28 MWt and 4.4 TJ/yr;

for a total of 281.05 MWt and 1,501.1 TJ/yr. 

Taken from the paper by John W. Lund, Derek H. Freeston, and Tonya L. Boyd: "Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2010 Worldwide Review"; published in Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, Indonesia, 25-29 April 2010