Japan - Direct Uses

data used from WGC2010

       

MWt

TJ/year

space heating

77.37

969.49

Industrial applications

1.24

30.92

Greenhouse heating

36.92

451.73

fish farming

7.91

141.86

Snow melting

106.78

361.39

bathing and swimming

1810.19

23519.81

Air conditioning

45.76

154.88

Geothermal heat pumps

100

500

                         

 

Total thermal installed capacity in MWt

2186.17

Direct use in TJ/year

26130.08

Direct use in GWh/year

7258.94

Capacity factor

0.38

 

Country Update: No country update paper was available from Japan; however some data was provided by personal contact (Kasumi, 2014) indicating that there has been no change in direct utilization, except for a recent increase in geothermal heat pump installations. The direct-use of medium- and low-enthalpy geothermal water is mainly located in the areas around the high-enthalpy geothermal areas where hot spring resources are abundant. Otherwise, the use of shallow geothermal heat pump systems is available nationwide. Geothermal heat pumps are used for space heating and cooling, domestic hot water and snow melting. Many new systems have been installed in Hokkaido replacing old oil boilers. Approximately 84% of GHPs are closed loop, 15% open loop, and 1% using both systems. The estimated installed capacity is 100 MWt and annual energy use of 500 TJ/yr, based on extrapolations from 2012 data (62 MWt at that time). Bathing, mainly at Japanese-style inns (onsens) is very popular with the Japanese people and accounts for about 90% of the direct-use applications.


Taken from: John W. Lund and Tonya L. Boyd
Published in Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2015 Worldwide Review


Total thermal installed capacity in MWt:2,099.5
Direct use in TJ/year15,698.9
Direct use in GWh/year7,138.9
Capacity factor0.39

The direct use of medium- and low-enthalpy geothermal water is mainly located in the areas around the high-enthalpy geothermal area, where hot spring resources are abundant. Otherwise, the use of shallow geothermal heat pump systems is available nationwide. These latter installation account for only 0.3% of the direct-use, and thus have limited use in the country.

Although many hotels and Japanese-style inns utilize hot spring water, this bathing utilization has been excluded in past reports and was only estimated by the authors (Freeston and Lund) for WGC2005, mainly as it is difficult to evaluate the actual use. However, to be consistent with reports from other countries and the world-wide summary, the numbers for bathing and swimming are included in this report.

The total capacity without bathing has not changed much from WGC2005. Bathing now accounts for about 90% of the utilization in the country for direct-use. Since 2002, 141 new direct-use facilities has been added to the database, while 136 facilities were removed of which 58 facilities were dismantled or stopped operating due to economic problems, switching to oil or corrosion/scaling problems.

The various applications are as follows:

77.37 MWt and 969.49 TJ/yr for space heating; 
36.92 MWt and 451.73TJ/yr for greenhouse heating; 
7.91 MWt and 141.86 TJ/yr for fish farming, 
1.24 MWt and 30.92 TJ/yr for industrial applications; 
152.54 MWt and 516.27 TJ/yr for air conditioning and snow melting (assuming a 30% - 70% split as for WGC2005); 
1,810.19 MWt and 23,519.81 TJ/yr for bathing and swimming;
13.36 MWt and 67.86 TJ/yr for geothermal heat pumps.

The total is 2,099.53 MWt and 25,697.94 TJ/yr

Taken from the paper by John W. Lund, Derek H. Freeston, and Tonya L. Boyd: "Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2010 Worldwide Review"; published in Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, Indonesia, 25-29 April 2010