Israel - Direct Uses




Greenhouse heating (estimated)



fish farming (estimated)



bathing and swimming (estimated)





Total thermal installed capacity in MWt


Direct use in TJ/year


Direct use in GWh/year


Capacity factor



Country Update: No country update report was received from this country. Thus, the data from WGC2010 will be utilized based on estimates from WGC2005. These include 27.6 MWt and 512.0 TJ/yr for greenhouse heating; 31.4 MWt and 989.0 TJ/yr for fish farming; and 23.4 MWt and 692 TJ/yr for bathing and swimming, giving a total for the country of 82.4 MWt and 2,193 TJ/yr (Lund, et al., 2010).

Taken from: John W. Lund and Tonya L. Boyd
Published in Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2015 Worldwide Review

Total thermal installed capacity in MWt:82.4
Direct use in TJ/year2,193.0
Direct use in GWh/year609.2
Capacity factor0.84

The use of geothermal fluids in spas, greenhouses and for aquaculture has continued and expanded to an annual energy use of 2,193 TJ/yr. No installed capacity number are given, thus, the authors have estimated these by extending the WGC2000 data – the total is then estimated at 82.4 MWt This compares with 63.3 MWt, 1,713 TJ/yr for the same parameters given in Lund and Freeston (2001). As reported in the 2001 paper, most of the fluid for the spas comes from abandoned deep oil wells. Some shallow wells were drilled for fish ponds with the greenhouse water using heat from deep water wells drilled in the Dead Sea rift and along the southern coastal plain (Levitte and Greitzer 2005). Geothermal water is used for both greenhouse and ground heating, using brackish water, with increases occurring in the Negev region (27.6 MWt and 512 TJ/yr); for fish farming which takes place in the Jordan Valley, and at Atlit-Maagan Michael along the Mediterranean coast; the latter of which has increased significantly (31.4 MWt and 989 TJ/yr); and for swimming and bathing at spas at 23.4 MWt and 692 TJ/yr.

Taken from the paper by John W. Lund, Derek H. Freeston, and Tonya L. Boyd: "World-Wide Direct Uses of Geothermal Energy 2005", published in Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2005, Antalya, Turkey, 24-29 April 2005.Lund, J. W. and D. H. Freeston, (2001). World-wide Direct Uses of Geothermal Energy 2000, Geothermics, 30(1), pp. 29-68

A Hypertext Document by Li BellucciMarnell Dickson, and Mario Fanelli

No country update paper was received from Israel. Thus, assuming the direct-use in the country has not changed, we will use reports and estimates from WGC2005 (Lund et al., 2005). Geothermal energy is used for spas, greenhouses and aquaculture as follows (Leviite and Greitzer, 2005):

27.6 MWt and 512.0 TJ/yr for greenhouse heating;
31.4 MWt and 989.0 MWt for fish farming;
23.4 MWt and 692 TJ/yr for bathing and swimming;

for a total of 82.4 MWT and 2,193 TJ/yr. 

Taken from the paper by John W. Lund, Derek H. Freeston, and Tonya L. Boyd: "Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2010 Worldwide Review"; published in Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, Indonesia, 25-29 April 2010