Indonesia - Direct Uses




bathing and swimming (estimated)





Total thermal installed capacity in MWt


Direct use in TJ/year


Direct use in GWh/year


Capacity factor



Country Update: There are no new applications of direct-use in the country as report for WGC2010. Direct-use development of geothermal spas and swimming pools have occurred over hundreds of years, along with 20th century development for washing and cooking. Today, direct-use has been developed for agriculture such as copra drying in Lahenong, Mataloko and Wai Rai Lampung, mushroom cultivation in Pengalengan, tea drying and pasteurization in Pengalengan, and for catfish growing in Lampung. Farmers at this latter operation report that the fish grow better in the geothermal fluid and freshwater mixture. Palm sugar is processed using 4 tonnes/hr of brine from the Lahendong geothermal power plant. A cocoa drying facility has also been developed close to the copra drying operations described above. No geothermal heat pump operations are report for the country. Based on data from 2001 (Lund and Freeston), the estimate usage for bathing and swimming are 2.3 MWt and 42.6 TJ/yr (Darma, et al., 2015).

Taken from: John W. Lund and Tonya L. Boyd
Published in Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2015 Worldwide Review

Total thermal installed capacity in MWt:2.3
Direct use in TJ/year42.6
Direct use in GWh/year11.8
Capacity factor0.59


The paper by Darma et al. (2010) focuses, as in the past on the development of electricity generation by geothermal energy, however five years ago a group of researchers in government sponsored research and technology agency (BPPT) began to investigate methods to apply geothermal energy to the agriculture sector, particularly to sterilize the growing medium used in mushroom cultivation.

The process is still at the research stage not having yet become commercial.

Other uses of geothermal fluids include palm sugar processing, copra drying, tea drying and pasteurization and some fish farming. These activities are spread over about six areas totaling about 200 – 300 tonnes/hr of fluid.

No heat pump installations are used to date as they appear to be uneconomical at this time due to the availability and abundance of high enthalpy fluids.

Lund and Freeston (2001) cited 2.3MWt and 42.6TJ/yr as the usage for bathing and swimming and are assumed to remain unchanged. A paper by Surana et al. (2010) indicates additional direct use installations in the country, including bathing and swimming, Mushroom growing, palm sugar production, copra and cocoa drying, aquaculture, and space heating. Unfortunately, no data on capacity and annual energy us were provided, and thus cannot be estimated for this report.

Taken from the paper by John W. Lund, Derek H. Freeston, and Tonya L. Boyd: "Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2010 Worldwide Review"; published in Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, Indonesia, 25-29 April 2010