Egypt - Direct Uses

All values are estimated




space heating



District heating system






bathing and swimming





Total thermal installed capacity in MWt


Direct use in TJ/year


Direct use in GWh/year


Capacity factor



Country Update: Direct utilization of thermal water in ancient Egypt goes back thousands of years, where Egyptians used warm water from hot springs for domestic uses. Warm lakes in the houses of wealthy people were developed for swimming and medical purposes. Some

Papyrus writings are found in the western desert recording such images. Recently, some direct low-grade geothermal applications are now in use. The most common uses are for district heating, fish farming, agricultural applications and greenhouses. Some swimming pools have been constructed along the eastern coast of the Gulf of Suez. These pools are mainly used for touristic and medical purposes. Geothermal waters from hot springs are the main source for these pools. In the western desert of Egypt, greenhouses are heated with geothermal water such as at the oases of Baharia and Dakhla. District heating is also used in the winter. Unfortunately, no estimated of installed capacity and annual energy use is provided by the authors, as none were provided for WGC 2005 and 2010.

Taken from: John W. Lund and Tonya L. Boyd
Published in Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2015 Worldwide Review

Total thermal installed capacity in MWt:1.0
Direct use in TJ/year15.0
Direct use in GWh/year4.2
Capacity factor0.48

There was no country update report from Egypt; however a paper by Idris (2000) and personal communications with the author describes several spas with bathing located in the country. Among them is the Helwan sulphur bath, located east of the Nile River and south of Cairo, which is fed by a large sulphur spring, in the central part of the Helwan District that has been used for curing skin disorders since the VII century. Temperature is 31.6°C and discharge is 2.9 l/s. Springs can also be found in the Western Desert of Dakhla Oasis (Ain Elgabal – 40°C and 5.2 l/s), Farafra Oasis (Ain Elbalad – 28°C and 5.6 l/s), Baharya Oasis (Ain El Bishmou - 31.6°C and 4.4 l/s) (Ain El Ris - 28.3°C and 1.2 l/s), and Sinai (Ain Hammam Faroun – 70°C and 10.2 l/s) (Idris, personal communication). The WGC 2000 estimation of 1.0 MWt and 15 TJ/yr is assumed to still be current.

Taken from the papers:"World-Wide Direct Uses of Geothermal Energy 2005", by John W. Lund, Derek H. Freeston, and Tonya L. Boyd, published in Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2005, Antalya, Turkey, 24-29 April 2005."World-wide direct uses of geothermal energy 2000", by John W. Lund and Derek H. Freeston, published in Geothermics, Vol. 30, no.1 (2001).

A Hypertext Document by Li BellucciMarnell Dickson, and Mario Fanelli 

No data were submitted for WGC2005 or WGC2010. A paper by Idris (2000) and personal communications with the author in 2000 indicated that there are several spas with bathing facilities in Egypt. A spa at Hammam Faraun is also reference in Lashin and Al Arifi (2010).

The estimates in Lund et al. (2005) of 1.0 MWt and 15 TJ/yr are assumed to still be valid. 

Taken from the paper by John W. Lund, Derek H. Freeston, and Tonya L. Boyd: "Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2010 Worldwide Review"; published in Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, Indonesia, 25-29 April 2010