Bulgaria - Direct Uses




space heating



Air conditioning



Greenhouse heating



Others ( oil, food and soft drink production)



bathing and swimming



 geothermal heat pumps(estimated)





Total thermal installed capacity in MWt


Direct use in TJ/year


Direct use in GWh/year


Capacity factor



Country Update: Direct-use of geothermal water in the country is for balneology, space heating and air-conditioning, greenhouse heating, groundsource heat pumps, direct thermal water supply, bottling of potable water and soft drinks and for some technological processes (oil, food and soft drinks production). The largest uses of the thermal water are for balneology and water supply, and within the former, two applications in balneology are dominant – relaxation and sanitary needs, and treatment and rehabilitation. Relaxation and sanitary needs are dominant at spa hotels located on mountain and seaside resorts. Greenhouses are currently in operation at six sites in southern Bulgaria. They cover an approximate area of 10 ha and produce vegetables and flowers for the local market. The applications of heat pumps has been growing over the past years, however, published data are lacking. These systems are used in family houses, block of flats, and office and industrial buildings in different regions of the country. GSHP use is estimated at 10.0 MWt and 47.30 TJ/yr for a capacity factor of 0.16. An innovated pilot system using CO2 earth heat pipes has recently been installed to provide heating to an industrial building in Brani pole village.

Taken from: John W. Lund and Tonya L. Boyd
Published in Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2015 Worldwide Review

Total thermal installed capacity in MWt:98.3
Direct use in TJ/year1,370.12
Direct use in GWh/year380.6
Capacity factor0.44

The country is rich in geothermal water within the temperature range of 20 to 100oC with the main geothermal activity concentrated in the southern part of the country due to the higher water temperature and low water salinity. The information in the paper is based mainly on state-owned and only partially municipality-owned geothermal fields and is based on existing permits and concessions. The main geothermal direct-use in the country is for balneology (prevention, treatment and rehabilitation, bathing and swimming pools), space heating and air-conditioning, greenhouse heating, geothermal heat pumps, direct thermal water supply, bottling of potable water and soft drinks and for unspecified industrial use. The cultivation of microalgae and production of iodine paste and methane extraction have been terminated. The installed capacity for direct use, excluding geothermal heat pumps, is about 30% less as compared to five years ago.

The geothermal direct use is:

9.28 MWt and 128.56 TJ/yr for individual space heating,
6.7 MWt and 65.5 TJ/yr for air conditioning,
5.99 MWt and 88.68 TJ/yr for greenhouse heating,
48.78 MWt and 768.32 TJ/yr for bathing and swimming,
6.92 MWt and 32.83 TJ/yr for other uses (preparing steam for heat stations and public laundry),
20.63 MWt and 286.23 TJ/yr for geothermal heat pumps,

for a total of 98.30 MWt and 1,370.12 TJ/yr.  

Taken from the paper by John W. Lund, Derek H. Freeston, and Tonya L. Boyd: "Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2010 Worldwide Review"; published in Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, Indonesia, 25-29 April 2010